By MURPHY BROWNE
August 1 is Emancipation Day in Canada and other British colonies. However, while Africans, who had been enslaved in Antigua, Canada and South Africa were freed on August 1, 1834, Africans who had been enslaved by the British in several Caribbean islands were subjected to a system of “apprenticeship” which lasted from 1834 to August 1, 1838.
These colonies include Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Dominica and Jamaica, British Guiana (Britain’s sole South American colony) and British Honduras (Britain’s sole colony in Central America). Africans were forced to continue living on the plantations of the people who had enslaved them and forced to work 40 hours a week without pay (and paid a pittance for work over 40 hours) as “apprentices”. They were also forced to pay taxes and rent for the dreadful hovels in which they dwelled on the plantations.
In 1838, two British men, Thomas Harvey and Joseph Sturge, documented the brutality of the “apprenticeship” system when they published The West Indies in 1837: Being the Journal of a Visit to Antigua, Montserrat, Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados and Jamaica, Undertaken for the Purpose of Ascertaining the Actual Conditions of the Negro Population of Those Islands.
Harvey and Sturge wrote: “A new kind of slavery under the name Apprenticeship; an anomalous condition, in which the Negroes were continued, under a system of coerced and unrequited labour”.
They also observed that “the planters have since succeeded in moulding the Apprenticeship into an almost perfect likeness of the system they so unwillingly relinquished. An equal, if not greater amount, of uncompensated labour, is now extorted from the Negroes; while, as their owners have no longer the same interest in their health and lives, their condition, and particularly that of mothers and young children, is in many respects worse than during slavery.”
While the Africans were suffering in slave-like conditions under the apprenticeship system, White people in Britain were in self congratulatory mode.
The Guardian, a British newspaper, published the following piece dated Saturday, August 2, 1834: “Throughout the British dominions the sun no longer rises on a slave. Yesterday was the day from which the emancipation of all our slave population commences; and we trust the great change by which they are elevated to the rank of freemen will be found to have passed into effect in the manner most accordant with the benevolent spirit in which it was decreed, most consistent with the interests of those for whose benefit it was primarily intended, and most calculated to put an end to the apprehensions under which it was hardly to be expected that the planters could fail to labour as the moment of its consummation approaches. We shall await anxiously the arrivals from the West Indies that will bring advices to a date subsequent to the present time.”
Meanwhile, on Saturday, August 2, 1834, a group of Africans were on their second day of demonstrations in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, because they were furious that complete freedom was still six years away. Africans in the Caribbean had learned that those who worked in the fields would be apprenticed until 1840 and those who worked in the homes of the slave holders or were skilled tradesmen would be apprenticed until 1838.
Governor George Fitzgerald Hill sent the militia out to intimidate the group but the furious Africans stood their ground. In spite of the presence of the militia, the protest continued until nightfall when the protesters strategically withdrew because they were not allowed to be in the town after dark.
On August 2, when the group of protesters returned to Government House, Hill gave the order to arrest them. There were scuffles with the militia and some of the protesting Africans were arrested, tried, sentenced to hard labour and flogging and taken to the Royal Jail.
Their incensed compatriots were forced to flee but when they returned on the Monday to continue the protest the number of protestors had swollen and there were more clashes with the militia. Some of those who were arrested on the Monday were publicly flogged in Marine Square. The protests continued the entire week before it was quelled, but several of the Africans refused to return to the plantations and instead “squatted” in the districts known today as Belmont and East Dry River.
On July 25, 1838, Governor Hill called an emergency session of the Council of Government to seek approval of a special proclamation he had drafted which ended the apprenticeship period for Africans in Trinidad on August 1, 1838 whether they worked in the fields, homes or were skilled workers.
Africans throughout the region protested their continued enslavement under the Apprenticeship system and on August 1, 1838 slavery was abolished in all the British colonies.
Since the abolition of slavery Africans have celebrated August 1 as Emancipation Day or August Monday. In his book, Rites of August First: Emancipation Day in the Black Atlantic World: Antislavery, Abolition, and the Atlantic World, British author J.R. Kerr has written about the global impact of August 1, which served to connect Africans in the Caribbean, North and South America.
In her book Emancipation Day: Celebrating Freedom in Canada, African Canadian author Natasha Henry has researched and written about the history of August 1 celebrations throughout Canada including the connection of Caribana (modeled on Trinidad’s carnival) to Emancipation Day.
The government of Trinidad and Tobago was the first of the former British Caribbean countries to declare August 1 a national holiday in 1985.